The Polish Anthropological Society continues the tradition of the Anthropological Commission founded in 1873 at the Krakow Academy of Learning, and the Paris-based Anthropological and Ethnographical Society established in 1878.

The Polish Anthropological Society was founded in Poznań by a founding statute of 12 November 1925. Its first president was Prof. Adam Wrzosek. Nowadays, the Polish Anthropological Society consists of 300 members divided into ten departments. The departments are established at academic institutions.

The Society holds biannual national conferences attended by its members, representatives of other disciplines and invited international guests.

The Society is interdisciplinary in nature: apart from anthropologists, it comprises representatives of other human studies, such as archaeologists, sociologists, pedagogues, psychologists, physicians, physical education researchers and others.

The Polish Anthropological Society is a permanent member of the International Association of Human Biologists (IAHB) and the Atlantic-Euro-Mediterranean Academy of Medical Sciences (AEM AMS); it has a long record of cooperation with the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Science (IUAES) and the European Anthropological Association (EAA), as well as many other research institutions in Poland and abroad (including Australia, the USA, Mexico, Egypt, Israel, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Hungary).

The Polish Anthropological Society is a member of the Federation of Polish Scientific Societies.

The Polish Anthropological Society's scientific journal is Przegląd Antropologiczny, now called Anthropological Review, published since 1926.

The statutory activity of the Polish Anthropological Society is financed by its own resources and the budget of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education committed to the dissemination of study results.