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Volume 81, 2018, Issue 3

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society 


The affinities of Homo antecessor – a review of craniofacial features and their taxonomic validity
Francesc Ribot Trafí, Mario García Bartual, Qian Wang

The phylogenetic affinities of Homo antecessor, a hominin dating from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, are still unclear. In this study we conducted a comprehensive review of the TD6 hypodigm within the context of the historical development of paleoanthropological issues concerning this species. H. antecessor, based on all available craniofacial features to date, displays a midfacial morphology very similar to specimens attributed to Classic Homo erectus, suggesting that H. antecessor is the geographical European variant of Classic H. erectus.

A glance of genetic relations in the Balkan populations utilizing network analysis based on in silico assigned Y-DNA haplogroups
Emir Šehović, Martin Zieger, Lemana Spahić, Damir Marjanović, Serkan Dogan

The aim of this study is to provide an insight into Balkan populations’ genetic relations utilizing in silico analysis of Y-STR haplotypes and performing haplogroup predictions together with network analysis of the same haplotypes for visualization of the relations between chosen haplotypes and Balkan populations in general. The population dataset used in this study was obtained using 23, 17, 12, 9 and 7 Y-STR loci for 13 populations. The 13 populations include: Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia, Greece, Romany (Hungary), Hungary, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Kosovo, Romania and Bulgaria. The overall dataset contains a total of 2179 samples with 1878 different haplotypes. I2a was detected as the major haplogroup in four out of thirteen analysed Balkan populations. The four populations (B&H, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia) which had I2a as the most prevalent haplogroup were all from the former Yugoslavian republic. The remaining two major populations from former Yugoslavia, Macedonia and Slovenia, had E1b1b and R1a haplogroups as the most prevalent, respectively. The populations with E1b1b haplogroup as the most prevalent one are Macedonian, Romanian, as well as Albanian populations from Kosovo and Albania. The I2a haplogroup cluster is more compact when compared to E1b1b and R1b haplogroup clusters, indicating a larger degree of homogeneity within the haplotypes that belong to the I2a haplogroup. Our study demonstrates that a combination of haplogroup prediction and network analysis represents an effective approach to utilize publicly available Y-STR datasets for population genetics.

Assessment of nutritional status by composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF): a study among preschool children of Sagar Block, South 24 Parganas District, West Bengal, India
Sadaruddin Biswas, Som Prasad Giri, Kaushik Bose

Being a developing nation, rural India is still facing a serious health problem in form of undernutrition particularly among young children. To optimize this problem, the Central Government has been operating a nationwide nutritional intervention programme in the form of Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme. Unfortunately, it has failed to achieve the desired goal during last four decades. Therefore the present study was designed to measure the seriousness and severity of overall undernutrition using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) among the rural Bengalee preschool children of Sagar Block, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 656 preschool children (326 boys and 330 girls) aged 3 to 5 years. Height (cm) and weight (kg) measurements were taken according to standard procedure, age and sex specific 2 z-scores values of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age were used to assess stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively, as per the World Health Organization Guidelines. CIAF was also computed as per standard methodology to assess the degree of undernutrition among the studied children. The overall age and sex combined prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight and CIAF was 26.2%, 35.4%, 51.1% and 61.3%, respectively. CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition (61.28%) in comparison to other three indicators i.e., stunting, wasting and underweight. We conclude that the nutritional status of the subjects was not satisfactory. It was also established that the CIAF is a better indicator of nutritional status than traditional measures of stunting, wasting and underweight, because it determines overall (total) anthropometric failure.

The validity of parental-reported body height and weight: a comparison with objective measurements of 7-8-year-old Czech children
Zborilova Vendula, Pridalova Miroslava, Sigmundova Dagmar, Kaplanova Tereza

The values of body weight and height can be recorded in various ways. Self-reports and parentalreport methods are amongst the most typical ways to collect data. These methods have advantages, but also limits. Anthropometric measures are recommended to improve measurement precision. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the parental-reported body weight and height of 7-8-year-old Czech children corresponded with the measured body weight and height. Data concerning children’s body weight and body height were collected via parental informed consent and anthropometric measurements. The research sample consisted of 388 children from 7 to 8 years-old (boys, n = 176; girls, n = 162). Only children with parental informed consent were included. Correlations between parental-reported and measured data were analysed with the Pearson correlation coefficient to examine the strength of linear dependence between the two methods. The differences between parental-reported and measured data were tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. P-values below α = 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Parents manifested a tendency to underestimate body weight and especially the body height of their children. This trend was seen in boys and girls in both age groups. Out of the 338 children with parent-reported height, parents under-reported their child’s height by 1 cm or more in 37.1% of the children, 39.6% of the parents reported a height within 0.99 cm of the measured height, and 23.3% of parents over-reported their child’s height by 1 cm or more. The same number of children had parentreported weights, parents under-reported their child’s weight by 1 kg and more in 25.2% of the children, 57.7% of the parents reported a weight within 0.99 kg of the measured weight, and 17.1% of the parents over-reported their child’s weight by 1 kg or more. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the measured and parental-reported height and weight revealed a statistically significant strong positive linear relationship in both genders (rheight = 0.912, rweight = 0.943; all p< 0.001). The differences between the measured and parental-reported height and weight were not significantly different (all p< 0.05). The high agreement and correlation between measured and parental-reported body height and weight suggest that parental-report methods can be an appropriate alternative to objective measurement and can be used as a valid tool to classify body height and weight for large population studies of Czech children in school-based research when anthropometric measures are not available.

The effects of selected lifestyle components on the risk of developing dynapenia in women – a pilot study
Aleksandra Bogucka, Anna Kopiczko, Anna Głębocka

Aging processes in a body inevitably lead to changes which may decrease the quality of life of the elderly. Dynapenia is a phenomenon which is still not well known and needs to be studied in the population. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of lifestyle on the risk of developing dynapenia in post-menopausal women. The study included 46 females aged 71.4 ±5.6 living in the town of Wysokie Mazowieckie. Basic body dimensions and body composition elements were assessed with the use of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A direct interview method with the use of the modified Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) was applied. In order to assess the prevalence of dynapenia, handgrip strength was measured with the use of hydraulic dynamometer. Physical activity was assessed with the use of a pedometer. The respondents’ nutrition was examined in an interview concerning their diet from the 24 hours preceding the examination according to the methodology of Food and Nutrition Institute (FNI). The intake of energy and nutritional elements in a diet was calculated with using DIETA 5.0 computer software. Dynapenia was diagnosed in 21.7% of the examined women. The women with dynapenia had significantly bigger waist and hip circumferences and higher BMI (p<0.05) as well as significantly weaker hand muscles than healthy women (p<0.001). Females with dynapenia spent significantly more time in a sedentary position, i.e. talking on the phone, participating in religious rituals or watching TV (p<0.05) compared to women without dynapenia. No significant differences concerning the diet of women with and without dynapenia were revealed. Physical activity may significantly decrease the risk of dynapenia among women over 60 years of age. Furher research is needed to assess the risk of dynapenia and methods of its prevention.

Anthropometric profile of female handball players is related to bone mineral density
Anna Pastuszak, Michał Górski, Jan Gajewski, Krzysztof Buśko

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of a wide range of anthropometric parameters with BMD in normal-weight women: handball players and healthy untrained students. Thirteen former female handball players, (age 21.2±0.9 years, body mass 64.2±6.1 kg, training experience 6.7±2.4 years) and 51 randomly selected untrained students (age 20.6±1.2 years, body mass 58.1±6.8 kg), were examined. The anthropometric measurements included 16 variables. BMD was measured on the radius of the non-dominant hand at distal and proximal points with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a Norland pDEXA densitometer. Relationships between BMD and anthropometric variables were assessed in 64 normal-weight women (BMI≥18.5 and ≤ 24.99 kg/m2), by calculating Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. We found a significant positive relationship between bone mass characteristics and biacromial breadth (0.30-0.53), calf (0.28-0.47) and arm (0.27-0.42) girth corrected, and lean body mass (LBM) (kg) (0.38-0.61) and (%) (0,27) in the group of normal-weight women. The student groups were significantly different (analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc test, p<0.001) in BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and Z-score at both measured points. The former handball players were also characterized by higher body mass and LBM (kg), as well as corrected body girths and biacromial breadth (p<0.001), compared to untrained students. The groups did not differ significantly in body height or total fat. The morphological profile of the female handball players is conducive to BMD. Skeletal characteristics and muscle tissue had a significant beneficial effect on bone mineral characteristics in young women with normal weight.

Dental health status of skeletal remains excavated from an abandoned well at Ajnala, India: a bioarchaeological study
Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat, Monika Singh

Present study was conducted to assess dental health status of the mid-19th century skeletal remains excavated from an abandoned ancient well and to scrutinize the demographic affiliations of the remains. Thousands of bones, teeth and contextual items were excavated non-scientifically from an abandoned well situated underneath a religious structure at Ajnala (Amritsar, India). Four thousands four hundred and seventy five teeth of each type were examined for presence of dental pathologies of caries, wear and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH). The frequency distribution of each pathological state was calculated for each tooth type using international dental standards available in the literature. The overall dental status was characteristic of young individuals having low prevalence of dental caries and enamel hypoplasiac lesions. Very few teeth had seriously exposed dentine and pulp cavity; indicating consumption of some cariogenic food items. The maxillary and posterior teeth were more affected with dental caries than the mandibular and anterior teeth. LEH defects were found more commonly distributed in the lower canines (44.9%) and upper incisors (34.8%) than their corresponding counterparts and statistically significant differences were noticed in LEH prevalence between anterior and, posterior dentition. The overall percentage of LEH has been found as 15.8%; with 15.4% maxillary and 16.2% mandibular teeth being affected with LEH. The paleodontogical examinations, contextual items and the preliminary molecular findings supported the written versions that victims of Ajnala skeletal remains had sound dental health status and probably belonged to adult males who were killed in 1857 as per written versions.

Ovarian activity regulation by anti-Müllerian hormone in early stages of human female life, an overview
Małgorzata Jusiakowska-Piputa, Maria Kaczmarek

The present study aimed at describing the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), with special focus on molecular background for ovarian activity, in particular the role AMH plays in sex determination and gonadogenesis process in early stages of prenatal life and folliculogenesis in postnatal life. It is a review of the literature currently indexed and abstracted in MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Google Scholars. The process of sex determination and gonad differentiation occurring during embryogenesis was discussed along with underlying molecular mechanisms. In the postnatal life the impact of AMH on the process of folliculogenesis was described. Clinical use of recent findings was shown as well. Genetic studies and molecular analyses have demonstrated that AMH is highly conservative, indicating its significance in reproductive process on the background of evolutionary processes.

Volume 81, 2018, Issue 2

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society 



Body height and age at menarche of girls from eastern Poland in the period of political transformation
Jerzy Saczuk, Agnieszka Wasiluk, Adam Wilczewski

Biological state of a group of people or particular individuals in various phases of ontogenesis
should be treated as a positive health measure. The aim of the study was to assess the directions of
changes in body height and age at menarche of girls from eastern Poland in the years 1986-2016. The data regarding 30784 students aged 10-16 living in towns and villages of the eastern parts of such regions as Podkarpackie, Lubelskie, Podlaskie, Warminsko-mazurskie and, to a slight extent, Mazowieckie were used in the study. Body height was measured and information concerning the place of living and age at menarche (yes-no) was gathered during interviews. Acceleration of body height and age at menarche was observed in girls from the east of Poland in the period of political transformation and after European Union (EU) accession, while the level of secular trends was connected with the pace of changes in the environment. Biological effects of the EU preservation of Polish agriculture and particular care of the eastern provinces of Poland reduced developmental differences between these provinces and other regions of Poland. Moreover, in the analysed period of three decades (1986-2016), the disappearance of differences in body height and age at menarche between the inhabitants of rural and urban areas was noted, which indicates larger positive socio-economic changes in the countryside. In turn, greater body height was noted in non-menstruating girls compared to their menstruating counterparts. However, in subsequent observations, smaller differences between these groups were observed.

Percent of body fat, fat-mass, fat-free mass and assessment of body composition among rural school-going children of Eastern-India
Sampriti Debnath, Nitish Mondal, Jaydip Sen

Percent of body fat (PBF), fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) are useful indicators for the
assessment of body composition. The present study was conducted among 1351 children (boys: 660; girls: 691) aged 5–12 years residing in West Bengal, Eastern-India. The children were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and sub-scapular skinfold (SSF) were recorded using standard procedures. The PBF, PBF-for-age z-score (PBFZ) and body mass index (BMI) were subsequently calculated. Body composition was assessed using FM, FFM, fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI). Age-specific mean values of FM ranged from 2.12–4.00 kg (boys) and 2.16–4.40 kg (girls). Age-specific mean values of FFM ranged from 14.45–23.93 kg (boys) and 14.01–23.03 kg (girls). Sex-specific mean differences between sexes were statistically significant in weight, height, TSF, SSF, PBF, PBFAZ, FM, FFM, FMI and FFMI (p<0.05), except in BMI (p>0.05). These results are important for future investigations in clinical and epidemiological settings so as to accurately identify the risk of lower or higher adiposity and body composition using PBF, FM and FFM.

Long-term changes in fat distribution in children and adolescents aged 3-18 from Krakow (Poland), within the last 30 years(from 1983 to 2010)
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal, Jan Sobiecki


In Poland, even in the late twentieth century, the problem of obesity was not significant.
However, recent studies have shown an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Socioeconomic changes, in last decades, approached Poland to Western Europe. A lifestyle of Poles (physical activity and diet) have changed radically. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in adiposity in children and adolescents over the last decades.
Two cross-sectional studies were made in 1983 and 2010. The analysis included 10,324 children and adolescents aged 3-18 living in Krakow (Poland). Data on selected skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, calf) were collected and compared between the series of studies. The total body fat (sum of 5 skinfolds) was higher in contemporary boys. In girls, there were not noticed such changes. In both sexes, the adiposity of triceps and supscapular region decreased. In the case of abdominal skinfold - there were no significant changes in boys, while contemporary girls had a smaller abdominal adiposity. In boys, there were noticed reduction in suprailiac skinfold thickness. In the case of girls, the reverse trend was reported - contemporary girls were characterized by higher suprailiac adiposity. Children studied in 2010 were characterized by greater calf skinfold. Changes in adiposity are worrying, especially in boys. The priority should therefore be effective prevention and intervention programs. They can prevent further deepening of the problem among Polish children, by the time it will be as severe as in Western Europe.

Enamel hypoplasia in a Mesolithic (5900±100 BC) individual from Woźna Wieś(Poland): a case study
Jacek Tomczyk, Agnieszka Ostrowska

Modern anthropological research includes very sophisticated diagnostic methods. They allow
us to obtain information that has not been available so far. The aim of this paper is to analyze, using current microscopic technologies, the Mesolithic dental material of one adult individual from Woźna Wieś (Poland). The present case study will focus on the analysis of enamel hypoplasia. A scanning electron
microscope (SEM) was used to count the number of perikymata building on the hypoplastic line. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) was diagnosed only on the right mandibular canine. The time of occurrence of environmental disturbance was estimated between about 4.2 and 4.9 years of age. The occlusal wall built the enamel hypoplasia with no more than three to four perikymata, meaning that the physiological stress had to have occurred over a fairly short period of time (about 30–40 days).

Associations between anthropometric indicators of adiposity and body fat percentage in normal weight young adults
Mustafa Söğüt, Kübra Altunsoy, Maria Inês Varela-Silva


The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between various
anthropometric adiposity screening indices and body fat percentage estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 186 (95 male and 91 female) normal weight (body mass index [BMI] = 18.5- 24.9 kg/m2) young adults (mean age= 20.96 ± 2.03 years) were measured on body fat percentage, body height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Abdominal volume index, body adiposity index, BMI, body roundness index, conicity index, reciprocal ponderal index, waist to height ratio, waist to height 0.5 ratio, and waist to hip ratio were calculated accordingly. Results revealed significant gender effects in all main anthropometric measurements. Except for waist to hip ratio, results indicated significant associations between anthropometric indices and BIA in both male and female participants. BIA results were found to be largely associated with BMI and abdominal volume index in both genders. Bland- Altman analysis showed good agreements between these indices and BIA. Considerable associations and agreements highlight the potential importance and the use of several anthropometric proxies to estimate body adiposity among male and female non-overweight/obese young adults. Despite continuing discussion regarding its accuracy, BMI seems to be useful for monitoring body adiposity within this cohort. 

Introducing the FIDENTIS 3D Face Database
Petra Urbanová, Zuzana Ferková, Marie Jandová, Mikoláš Jurda, Dominik Černý, Jiří Sochor

Face databases have assumed an important role in a variety of clinical and applied research
domains. However, the number of datasets accessible to the scientific community is limited and the
knowledge of their existence may be concealed from a wider range of specialists. In the present paper we introduce a sizeable dataset of 3D facial scans – FIDENTIS 3D Face Database (F3D-FD or FIDENTIS Database), which is accompanied by basic demographic and descriptive data. The database is structured according to recorded subjects, and comprises single-scan entries as well as a smaller number of multiscan entries. The multi-scan entries vary in the time passed between recording sessions and in the devices employed to collect the 3D data. The total number of 2476 individuals puts our database within the category of large-scale databases. The 3D scans are accessible through a web-based interface at www. A licensed version of the database is available to interested parties upon signing a license agreement. Because of its varied composition, and low target-specificity the database has capacity to be of great assistance for the worldwide research community.

The impact of maternal age on foetal growth patterns and newborn size
Franziska Kirchweger, Sylvia Kirchengast, Erich Hafner, Ingrid Stümpflein, Beda Hartmann

The association patterns between maternal age and foetal growth parameters as well as newborn size were analysed using a dataset of 4737 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube hospital. Foetal growth patterns were reconstructed by the results of three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33thweek of gestation. In detail, crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. Young teenage mothers (≤15 years), older adolescent mothers (16-19 years), mothers of optimal age range (20-35 years) and mothers of advanced age (>35 years) differed significantly in body height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain. Surprisingly, the foetuses of young adolescent mothers were the largest ones during first trimester. During the second and third trimester however, the foetuses of mothers of optimal age range (20-35 years) and mothers older than 35 years showed larger biometric dimensions than adolescent mothers. According to multiple regression analyses, maternal age was significantly related to Foetal head size (ß =-0.04; 95% CI = -0,08 – 0.01; p=0.034) and abdominal dimensions (ß= 0.03; 95% CI = 0.01-0.05; p=0,011) during the second trimester and to birthweight (ß= -0.03; 95% CI= -4.40 – 0.04; p=0.050). The associations however, are quite weak and the statistical significance is maybe due to the large sample size. At the time of birth, offspring of mothers of optimal age range (20 to 35 years) is significantly larger than that of adolescent mothers and mothers of advanced age. Mothers of advanced age showed the significantly highest (p=<0.0001) prevalence (5.6%) of SGA newborns (<2500g). The small size of newborn among young adolescent mothers may be due to a competition over nutrients between the still growing mothers and the foetuses during the third trimester, while placental ageing may be responsible for smaller size of offspring among mothers of advanced age.

The relationship between the use of combined hormonal contraception with a predominance of gestagens and the selected types of female body in young women from the region of Lower Silesia
Aleksandra Karykowska, Barbara Kwiatkowska, Joanna Grzelak, Bożena Kurc-Darak, Zygmunt Domagała

Oral contraceptive agents are currently the most popular and one of the most effective methods for preventing pregnancy. The data shows that over 300 million women in the world use contraceptive drugs containing synthetic hormones to avoid an unwanted pregnancy. Their effects may affect other systems, leading to the occurrence of various problems associated with the use of the drug. The aim of the study is to estimate the frequency of prevalence of subjective effects associated with the use of combined hormonal contraception with a predominance of gestagens by young women Surveys were conducted among female students of Wrocław universities from December 2010 to January 2011. They covered 257 women aged statistically 23.58 (SD=2.95). They were divided into three age classes: 19-22, 23-24, 25- 28. The individual age of menarche and the hormonal type of body were determined. Only persons with a gestagenic or estrogenic type of body were qualified for the study. Results: 64.6% of all respondents declared the use of hormonal contraception. Combined agents with a predominance of gestagens constituted 87% in this group. Their use brings both positive (90%) and negative (65%) aspects. The most common positive effects include high contraceptive effectiveness, regulation of menstruation and minimisation of skin problems. The most frequent negative effects include: weight gain, spotting, breast swelling and decreased libido. Surprisingly, the study did not show any correlation between the hormonal type and the occurrence of side effects. There was no significant statistical relationship between the type of hormonal contraception used and the hormonal type.

Volume 81, 2018, Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2018 © 2018 Polish Anthropological Society 


Comparative study of chronic energy deficiency among adult males of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and their counterparts
Ramesh Sahani, Rajesh K. Gautam, Amir H. Golnabi, Neeraj Vedwan

The indigenous islanders of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are representing the earliest form
of developmental stage, their nutritional assessment and anthropometric comparison with contemporary
populations are the main objective of the present paper. In this study we present a cross sectional
analysis of anthropometric data of 2010 individuals of 19 different groups. The data were collected by
the trained anthropologists of Anthropological Survey of India, following standard techniques and ethical
guidelines. It was found that the Indigenous Islanders have small body size as compared to immigrants
and counterparts. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) was found highest among the
mainlanders. Highest prevalence of overweight was found among Great Andamanese (18.2%), followed
by Onge (7.4%). Individuals below 21 years of age were not found to be overweight or obese. On the other
side, 16.7% of individual of age 41+ of local born were found to be overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2).
It can be concluded that the Indigenous people of the Islands are short in stature and nutritionally better
than immigrants. The immigrants are better than their counterparts in the mainland, but still they are not
able to reach at par of the indigenous people in the level of nutrition whereas logarithmic transformation
of data and scaling exponent (β) of weight to height was found ~2 across these populations.

Bone mineral density in healthy Syrian women measured by dual energyX-ray absorptiometry
Mohamed Adel Bakir, Kholoud B Hammad and Khuzama M Habil

Assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
technique is considered as a standard technique for diagnosing osteopenia and osteoporosis and evaluating
the severity of such diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated the necessity to establish an ethnicspecific
reference data for Bone mineral density measurements. Such data are lacking for the Syrian
population. The objectives of this study are (1) to establish BMD reference values in a group of healthy
Syrian women using DXA technique, (2) to compare with values from other populations, (3) to study the
prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Syrian women using the manufacturer reference values. A
total of 951 healthy Syrian women aged 20-79 years participated in this study. Weight, height, and BMI
have been determined. BMD measurements were performed using Lunar Prodigy Advance System (GE).
The data were compared with those from other populations. The results have demonstrated the expected
decline in BMD with age after peaking at 30-39 years old group. The peak values of the lumbar spine
and femur neck were 1.16 (0.12), and 0.95 (0.13) g/cm2, respectively. The results of the Syrian women
were compared with those from other populations and the differences were presented. Osteopenia was
diagnosed in 35.80% and 60.31% and osteoporosis in 6.23% and 2.72% in lumbar spine and femur neck,
respectively, of women 50-59 years of age. These ratios increased to 36.84%, 68.42% and 23.68%, 13.10%,
respectively, in the age group more than 59 years. BMD values of the Syrian women were determined for the
first time. The results demonstrate the importance of establishing population-specific reference range for
BMD values for an accurate assessment of Osteoporosis. High prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis
was demonstrated in Syrian using the manufacturer reference values.

Body dimensions and weight to height indices in rescuers from the State Fire Service of Poland
Andrzej Wiśniewski, Wojciech Jarosz, Anna Czajkowska, Anna Mróz, Marcin Smolarczyk, Andrzej Magiera, Przemysław Kowalczyk, Dagmara Zimmerman-Rysz, Marek Kowalczyk

Few studies have been published in Poland concerning body dimensions of firefighters from
the State Fire Service although this knowledge is needed for e.g. development of personal protective
equipment. The aim of the study was to evaluate body dimensions and weight-to-height ratio in firefighters
from the State Fire Service. Using the anthropological procedures, body mass (BM) and body height (BH)
were examined in 178 men at the chronological age (CA) of 19.5 to 53 years who were rescuers from the
national rescue and fire brigades of the State Fire Service. The study participants were divided into three
categories of CA: up to 25 years, between 24 and 44 years, and over 44 years. The results were compared to
population standards. It was found that BH of the youngest rescuers was significantly higher (0.05) than
in other study participants. Based on the standardized values of BM and BMI, population of firefighters
aged over 25 years was found to be characterized by overweight and, in certain cases, even by obesity. The
excess level of body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kgm2) was found in nearly 60% of study participants, with half
of the group classified as overweight (n=31, BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), and 10% classified as
obese. Due to the worrying high percentage of cases of excess body mass in firefighters from the State
Fire Service, it was found that it is recommended to evaluate the relationships between body height and
mass on regular basis during periodical obligatory tests of physical fitness of rescuers from the State Fire
Service and to increase the frequency and duration of training sessions.

A comparison of sex identification methods based on lip furrow pattern
Aleksandra Topczydło, Krzysztof Borysławski, Dariusz Nowakowski

The objective of the study was to specify the method with the highest probability of correct
sex identification based on lip furrow pattern. Three methods were verified: Vahanwala’s method,
identification based on the mid-section of lower lip print and our own method. The examined group
included 242 persons aged 15- 30 years, 68.6% females and 31.4% males. Cheilograms were taken with
the method proposed by Vanahwala, modified in such a way that the prints of lower and upper lips were
taken separately. The lip furrow patterns were classified according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, modified to
include horizontal furrows which were considered by Renaud. In all the quadrants patterns II, III and VI
prevailed among males and patterns I, I’ and II among females. Females were more frequently diagnosed
correctly than males. Our method in which all the lip print was analysed without division into quadrants
was the most effective, while Vahanwala’s method was the least so.

Skeletal evidence of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) in a collective burial from Byzantine Greece
Paraskevi Tritsaroli

The paper reports on a collective burial from a 13th c. AD cist grave in Attica, Greece. The grave
was located inside a basilica and held the remains of at least ten adults. Bone representation analysis
showed secondary manipulation of previous deceased including long bone selection for reburial in the same
grave and/or bones transported from a different burial place. Paleopathological analysis used macroscopy
and radiology, and revealed several lesions on the axial and appendicular skeleton expressed mainly by
spinal ligament ossification and multiple peripheral enthesopathies. Individuation of the remains pointed
to a middle-aged male with DISH, a condition often correlated to high social rank. Byzantine period is
marked by increasing development and prosperity in Greece including among others the creation of many
local monastic centers. Although the precise social and professional profile of these individuals cannot
be revealed, the combined investigation of skeletal and archaeological evidence suggests that the grave
gathered the remains of individuals belonging to an upper class social group.

Anthropological analysis and paleo-demographic study of human skeletal remains from the late ancient necropolis of Biverone (4th-5th c.AD), San Stino Di Livenza (Venice, Italy)
Giulia Gadioli, Cinzia Scaggion, Nicola Carrara

The study of the osteological collections preserved at the Museum of Anthropology – University
of Padua coming from archaeological excavations dated to the end of 19th and 20th century, is a great
opportunity to disseminate still unpublished anthropological data. The aim of this work was the analysis
through modern anthropological methodology of the human skeletal remains brought to light in 1983 at
the necropolis of Biverone, municipality of San Stino di Livenza (Venice, Northeast Italy). The site, close
to Livenza River, began its decadence in the Late Ancient period (4th-5th c. AD) as a result of regional
morphological variations and barbarian invasions, that caused an important local depopulation.
The study focused on the anthropological analysis of 121 skeletal individuals, trying to better understand
the paleodemographic profile, the state of health and the way of life of the ancient population of Biverone.
A preliminary identification of the ancestry was attempted, considering the general lack of information
about the Late Ancient Venetian populations.

Leukocyte count, systemic inflammation, and health status in older adults: a narrative review
Piotr Chmielewski

Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that elevated leukocyte count within the normal
range can predict cardiovascular and total mortality in older adults. These findings are remarkable because
this simple and common laboratory test is included in routine medical check-ups. It is well known
that chronic systemic inflammation (inflammaging) is one of the hallmarks of aging and an important
component of obesity-associated insulin resistance that can lead to type 2 diabetes and other health
problems in both overweight individuals and elderly people. To understand the molecular mechanisms
linking increased systemic inflammation with aging-associated diseases and elevated leukocyte counts
in the elderly is to unravel the multiplicity of molecular factors and mechanisms involved in chronic
low-grade systemic inflammation, the gradual accumulation of random molecular damage, age-related
diseases, and the process of leukopoiesis. There are several possible mechanisms through which chronic
low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with both higher leukocyte count and a greater risk
of aging-associated conditions in older adults. For example, the IL-6 centric model predicts that this
biomediator is involved in chronic systemic inflammation and leukopoiesis, thereby suggesting that
elevated leukocyte count is a signal of poor health in older adults. Alternatively, an increase in neutrophil
and monocyte counts can be a direct cause of cardiovascular events in the elderly. Interestingly, some
authors assert that the predictive ability of elevated leukocyte counts with regard to cardiovascular and allcause
mortality among older adults surpass the predictive value of total cholesterol. This review reports
the recent findings on the links between elevated but normal leukocyte counts and the increased risks
of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The possible molecular mechanisms linking higher but
normal leukocyte counts with increased risk of aging-associated diseases in the elderly are discussed here.

Postural stability and risk of falls per decade of adult life – a pilot study
Elżbieta Sieńko-Awierianów, Anna Lubkowska, Piotr Kolano, Monika Chudecka

A gradual loss of function in the balance system may begin in the fourth decade of life. The
effects of this process become visible in old age, when problems with postural stability contribute to falls,
making it an important social problem. Early detection of this dysfunction is essential for minimizing the
risk of age-related falls, one of the main causes of hospitalization or even death in older adults.
The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic factors that may result in the deterioration in postural
stability and determine the age range in which the first changes in stability occur. The study included
healthy non-sporting adults aged from 20 to 70 years. Four tests based on the Biodex Balance System were
used to determine static postural stability, dynamic postural stability, risk of falling and stability limits.
The obtained results showed that dysfunctions of dynamic balance appeared significantly earlier than
static balance dysfunctions, i.e. as early as at 50 years of age, and then gradually increased. Higher BMI
and the percentage and absolute fat content significantly increased the risk of falls and also adversely
affected the results of dynamic stability tests.

Volume 80, 2017, Issue 2

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773


Anthropol Rev 2017 © 2017 Polish Anthropological Society 


Body structure and maturation – the association with environmental factors
Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Anna Siniarska, Aneta Sikorska, Sławomir Kozieł

The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between physique, maturation and some environmental factors. The study was conducted in Warsaw, between 2012 and 2013 in randomly selected schools. The material included 171 girls, aged 12–20 years. Body height and weight, upper and
lower extremity length, subcutaneous fat folds on arm, subscapular and abdominal, circumferences of arm, chest, waist and hip were measured. Body proportion indices were calculated. The questionnaire form provided information on parental education and profession, and the number of children in family. Girls were asked about age at menarche, number of daily meals, level of physical activity, participation is sport, and level of stress at home and at school. The principal component analysis was applied and 4 factors were extracted from the set of living condition characteristics (F1 – Parental education & father’s occupation, F2 – Mother’s occupation and the number of children, F3 – Stress, F4 – Physical activity and number of daily meals). Regression analysis allowed to evaluate the association of body build characteristics and age at menarche with the four factors. Factor 1 and 4 were the only ones which showed a statistically significant association with body build. The results showed that girls who were taller, with smaller arm and waist circumferences and less adiposity came from families with higher parental education and better father’s profession. Taller stature, longer legs and less adiposity characterized girls who were more physically active and consumed more than three meals a day.

Nutritional status among children and adolescents aged 6–18 years of Kolam tribe of Andhra Pradesh, India K.
K. Bharthi, Manisha Ghritlahre, Subal Das, Kaushik Bose

Malnutrition has become one of the serious problems among children and adolescents internationally, especially in developing countries. India, a developing country covers 40% of undernourished children of the world. In India, tribal population is among the most deprived and undernourished people. The present study shows the prevalence of undernutrition among Kolam tribal children and adolescents by comparing different Body Mass Index (BMI) cut off points. Age and sex specific nutritional status of studied population shows 15.01% boys and 18.35% girls are in Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) III category, 16.22% boys and 19.32% girls are in CEDII, 31.71% boys and 2.72% girls are in CEDI only 0.96% boys and 1.69% girls are in overweight category respectively. Undernutrition is not limited to young children, even adults are also severely underweight in developing countries. Health and nutrition of today’s adolescent girls may have great impact on the quality of next generation. Proper nutritional programs and health policies are needed to be implemented among tribals to solve the problem of undernutrition and similar studies should be planned in other underprivileged sections worldwide.

Analysis of eating behaviors and eating habits, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in association with spirometry results of young adults
Edyta Dzięciołowska-Baran, Maciej Mularczyk, Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Sroka, Kinga Michnik, Ewa Rębacz-Maron

Behavior and eating habits stands as an important factor in terms of maintaining a good health condition in every age group. This involves optimal digestion, maintaining proper metabolism of the entire organism and thus maintaining proper body weight. It is especially important for students, as the increased mental activity results in increased energy expenditure. The state of body weight can affect the respiratory efficiency measured in spirometry. The aim of the study was to assessthe relation between behavior and eating habits, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and results from spirometry tests among young adults.
The study sample included 185 students from the University of Szczecin (mean age 21.2±1.3). Using a questionnaire prepared for the study, information on the eating plan of students for three consecutive days was collected. Dietary analysis was concerned with: eating in stressful situations, dieting, regularity of main meals, eating between main meals. Afterwards spirometry examination was performed along with a detailed measurement of body weight and height, waist and hip circumferences in order to calculate BMI and WHR index of each respondent. The data obtained was processed statistically. Significant correlations between FVC and “dieting” (Spearman’s rs=0.3) were recorded in the group of women. However, the association of other behavior and eating habits with spirometry parameters did reveal null results in both males and females.
Correct behaviors and eating habits at a young age affect spirometry parameters to a negligible extent. The absence of direct health related effects of bad consumption habits at a young age makes it all the more important to raise the awareness of students, that their current decisions will have an apparent effect in the future, maybe only after a few years.

Association between body size and selected hematological parameters in men and women aged 45 and above from a hospitalized population of older adults: an insight from the Polish Longitudinal Study of Aging (1960–2000)
Piotr Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec, Jolanta Chmielowiec, Krzysztof Chmielowiec, Krzysztof Borysławski

In elderly people, anemia occurs with increasing frequency with each advancing decade and can be a harbinger of very serious health conditions, including gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and cancer. Therefore, age-dependant changes in hematological parameters deserve special attention. Nonetheless, very few longitudinal studies of aging have focused on possible associations between basic anthropometric characteristics and hematological parameters in older people. Here, we present some evidence that body size can be associated with red blood cell count as well as some other selected hematological parameters in adults aged 45 to 70 years. Longitudinal data on anthropometric and hematological parameters have been obtained from physically healthy residents at the Regional Psychiatric Hospital for People with Mental Disorders in Cibórz, Lubuskie Province, Poland (142 individuals, including 68 men and 74 women). The residents who took psychoactive drugs were excluded from the study. To evaluate the studied relationships, three anthropometric traits were used and three dichotomous divisions of the study sample were made. The medians of body height, body weight, and body mass index at the age of 45 years were used to divide the sample into: shorter and taller, lighter and heavier, and slimmer and stouter individuals, respectively. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation, and regression analysis were employed. The results of the present study suggest that the relationship between body size and red blood cell count is slightly more pronounced in men and its strength depends on age. However, the correlations between body size and red blood cell count proved to be weak in both sexes. With aging, the strength of the relation decreased gradually, which might have been caused by the aging-associated changes in the hematopoietic system, anemia, or was an artifact. Further studies are needed to elucidate the unclear association between body size and hematological parameters in older adults.

Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators
M Adel Bakir, Kholoud Hammad, Loreen Mohammad

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and prevention strategies. Cross-sectional study with a randomly representative sample of 923 women aged 18–60 years was conducted. Waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Socio-demographic data were collected with a designed questionnaire. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in Syrian women as defined by BMI were 31% and 43%, respectively. The overall central obesity as defined by WC and WHR were 53% and 33%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were increased with age. WC and HC were strongly correlated with BMI. The mean BMIs and other anthropometric measurements were significantly higher in married, house wife, less educated, high parity, and low physical activity women. The results of this study indicate an increased rates of overweight, overall, and central obesity in Syrian women. Also, central obesity as defined by WC is higher than BMI derived obesity. In conclusion, WC is more appropriate to be used for obesity assessment, where, BMI underestimates the obesity prevalence among middle-age women. Development of appropriate treatment and prevention strategies are urgently needed to combat with increasing rate of obesity among Syrian women.

Anthropological analysis of projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk
Caitlin Humphrey, Maciej Henneberg

Ballistics literature often focuses on soft tissue injures and projectile trauma to the cranium. Minimal details on the bony characteristics of projectile trauma to the thorax/abdomen regions have been published. This study aims to analyse projectile trauma to the bony trunk region including the ribs, vertebrae, scapula, sternum and the hip bone to form a better understanding of the characteristics and biomechanics of skeletal trauma caused by a projectile and contribute to the existing database on skeletal trauma caused by projectiles. Fourteen cases of documented projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk from the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Natural History Museum, Ohio were analysed. Of the 14 individuals with gunshot wounds examined, 40 wounds occurred to the bones.Twenty- four injuries to the ribs, 1 ilium, 11 vertebrae, 3 scapulae, and 1 sternum. Fracture patterns, heaving and bevelling can be used to determine the direction of travel of the projectile which can be evident on the ribs, sternum, scapula and ilium. It is critical to understand the wounding patterns associated with projectile trauma to the torso region as this is often targeted, due to being the centre of mass.

Evidence of tuberculosis among children in medieval (13th–15th century) Wrocław: A case study of hip joint tuberculosis in a juvenile skeleton excavated from the crypt of the St. Elizabeth church
Agata Izabela Cieślik

Paleopathological examinations of the skeletal remains of people who died centuries ago are material source of knowledge about health and diseases in the past. In this article, a case of skeletal tuberculosis from historical (13th–15th c.) Wrocław, Poland has been presented. The juvenile skeleton excavated from grave No 93, from the crypt located under the church of St. Elizabeth, displayed pathological lesions within the right hip joint resulting from a chronic inflammation, which might have been assigned to signs typical for skeletal tuberculosis. The results of macroscopic and radiological analyses appeared to be consistent, and allowed to determine a reliable diagnosis of this paleopathological case.

Study of skin of an Egyptian mummy using a scanning electron microscope
Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Halina Przychodzeń, Michał Nawrot, Sylwia Tarka, Piotr Wasylczyk, Agnieszka Dąbkowska, Marcin Fudalej, Ewa Rzeźnicka, Dagmara Haładaj, Aleksandra Pliszka

The first study of modified human remains using an electron microscope was carried out at the end of the 1950 and in 1979 the first result of the study involving a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was published for the first time. The study was mainly focused on the structure of tissues and cells. With the help of this technique cell and tissue elements, viruses and bacterial endospores as well as the structure of epithelium and the collagen contents of dermis were identified and described. In the above-mentioned case the object of the study using a SEM was a free part of the right hand (forearm with the dorsal and palmar parts of hand) of unknown origin, with signs of mummification revealed during microscopic analysis. Our study was aimed at finding the answer to the question if the mummification of the studied limb was natural or intentional, and if the study using a SEM could link the anonymous remains with ancient Egypt.

Volume 80, 2017, Issue 1

Editor-in-Chief: Maria Kaczmarek

Editors: Maciej Henneberg , Sławomir Kozieł

Online: ISSN 1898-6773



Anthropol Rev 2017 © 2017 Polish Anthropological Society 


Growth and health status of children and adolescents in medieval Central Europe
Marta Krenz-Niedbała

Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10th–14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th–15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th–17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki), with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable due to political situation, military threats and migrations of people.

Estimating age at death from an archaeological bone sample – a preliminary study based on comparison of histomorphometric methods
Barbara Mnich, Janusz Skrzat, Krzysztof Szostek

The estimation of age at death is one of the most fundamental biological parameters, determined on skeletal remains in anthropological context. That is why, there is a constant need to improve applied methods. Histomorphometry, which uses microscopic analysis of bone tissue is suggested to be one alternative method. In general, this technique is based on measurements and the determination of the number and density of basic bone structural units, osteons. Osteon density is found to be related with age of the individual. The main goal of this research was to compare results of determined age at death, on the basis of ribs histology, comes from methods proposed by different authors. We analyzed ground cross sections of ribs from archeological origin. The presented methodology is simple in use and effective. Four different methods were tested (Stout and Paine 1992; Cho et al. 2002; Kim et al. 2007; Bednarek et al. 2009). The obtained age results were compared with each other as well as related to the age estimated by standard macroscopic method used in anthropology. Bednarek’s method is recognized to be the most supportive for anthropological analyzes. Methodological issues connected with grinding methodology and results interpretation are also presented. Hypothesis about interpopulation as well as histological and dimorphic differences were confirmed.

Oxygen stable isotopes variation in water precipitation in Poland – anthropological applications
Aleksandra Lisowska-Gaczorek, Beata Cienkosz-Stepańczak, Krzysztof Szostek

The main objective of oxygen isotope analysis is to determine the probable place of origin of an individual or the reconstruction of migration paths. The research are methodologically based on referencing oxygen isotope ratios of apatite phosphates (δ18Op) to the range of environmental background δ18O, most frequently determined on the basis of precipitation.
The present work is a response to the need for providing background for oxygen isotope studies on skeletons excavated in Poland. Currently there no monitoring of the isotope composition of precipitation water in Poland is conducted. For this reason, based on the data generated in the Online Isotopes In Precipitation Calculator (OIPC), a database was developed, containing δ18O levels in precipitation for locations in which exploration work was carried out in the archaeological fields from Poland. In total, 279 locations were analysed. The result of the data analysis was a complete isotope composition map for Poland with four zones distinguished by δ18Ow values.
The observable differences in oxygen isotope composition of precipitation in Poland are sufficient to trace migrations of individuals and populations, although accurate only at the level of macroregions.

Exploring the association between body mass index and dental caries in 3–7-year-old children, living in Łódź, Poland
Agnieszka Bruzda-Zwiech, Beata Borowska Strugińska, Renata Filipińska,Elżbieta Żądzińska, Beata Lubowiedzka-Gontarek, Beata Szydłowska-Walendowska, Magdalena Wochna-Sobańska

Dental caries and childhood obesity are major problems affecting the health of children and preventing these conditions in children have been recognized as public health priorities (Hong et al. 2008; Odgien et al. 2010). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between age-specific body mass index (BMI-for age) and dental caries in 3- to 7-year-olds. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 729 children from randomly chosen kindergartens and elementary schools in the urban area of Lodz, Poland. Anthropometric measurements were taken and the BMI-for-age was calculated for each child. Dental examinations were performed according to the WHO criteria. The sum of decayed, missing, filled primary/permanent teeth and surfaces – dmft/DMFT and dmft/DMFTS, and caries prevalence were computed. The percentage distribution of the BMI categories in the study group was: 72.7% normal weight, 8.92% underweight, 12.89% overweight and 5.49% obese. Caries prevalence in the primary dentition was significantly lower in underweight children than in those who were of normal weight (p=0.004) or were overweight (p=0.039). However, controlling for age and gender, no significant association was noted between BMI and caries prevalence in either dentition group. The Kruskal-Wallis test failed to reveal any significant differences in mean dmft across the four BMI groups in the whole population, nor within particular age groups, nor in DMFT in 5- to 7-year-olds. There was no association between BMI and dental caries either in the primary dentition or permanent teeth in the early period after eruption.

Use of upper arm anthropometry, upper arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH) and midupper-arm-circumference (MUAC)-for-height as indicators of body composition and nutritional status among children
Sampriti Debnath, Nitish Mondal, Jaydip Sen

Upper arm anthropometry has a potential role to provide useful estimations of body composition and nutritional status. Aims of the present cross-sectional study were to assess body composition and nutritional status of rural school-going children using upper arm anthropometric measures such as upper
arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for-height. The present
cross-sectional study was conducted among 1281 children of West Bengal, India (boys 619, girls 662) aged 5–12 years and selected using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight, MUAC and triceps skinfold (TSF) were recorded. Body composition and nutritional status were assessed using upper arm muscle area (UMA), upper arm fat area (UFA), UAMAH and MUAC-forheight. Age-sex-specific overall adiposity in TSF, UFA, arm fat index and upper-arm fat area estimates were higher among girls than boys (p<0.01), but UMA and upper-arm muscle area estimates were observed to be higher among boys than girls (p<0.05). High prevalence of undernutrition was found among both boys (53.15%) and girls (41.69%) using UAMAH (p<0.01). The overall prevalence of low MUAC-forheight was higher among boys (28.59%) than girls (25.68%) (p>0.05). Upper arm anthropometric measures, UAMAH and MUAC-for-height are useful for assessment of body composition and nutritional status among children.

Relationship between body fat percentage determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis and metabolic risk factors in Syrian male adolescents (18–19 years)
Mahfouz Al-Bachir, Mohamad Adel Bakir

The association between increasing obesity and metabolic syndrome among adolescent and the adverse consequences in adulthood including type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease is well documented. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the major metabolic risk factors and some clinical important parameters in Syrian male adolescents (18–19 years old), and to assess the correlations between BF% determined by BIA-man prediction equation and metabolic risk factors in the same group. The correlations between body fat percentage (BF%) based on BIA-man predictive equations, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), cholesterol (Chol), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), Hematocrit (Ht), and hemoglobin (Hb) in 1596 healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18–19 years and the mean values of these parameters were examined. Data showed that, DBP, Chol, TG, LDL and TG/HDL-C were significantly (p<0.05) higher in overweight and obese subjects in compression to normal weight cases. Whereas, SBP, FBS and Ht were significantly (p<0.05) higher in obese subjects in compression to normal weight. However, all measured variable related to metabolic syndrome risk factors increased with increasing the BF% determined by BIA-man. The present study suggests that % BF by BIA-man is a good predictor of metabolic risks factors for Syrian adolescents.

Body mass index, general fatness, lipid profile and bone mineral density in young women and men
Anna Kopiczko, Karol Gryko

The bone tissue is metabolically active. Throughout the entire life, it undergoes changes in the form of bone resorption processes which are successive, with the participation of the resorbing cells and bone formation processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate mineral density and bone mass tissue and the lipid profile, BMI, total body fat in young females and males. The study involved 100 people (50 females and 50 males) studying in Warsaw at the age of 23,2 ± 4,0 years. The densitometry method of the forearm was used for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass (BMC). The method of bioelectrical impedance was used for the assessment of body components. Basic body dimensions and indicators were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Body height, body mass and the needs for the densitometry study of the forearm were measured. The total cholesterol concentration was determined in the blood serum using diagnostic kits, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and triglycerides. The concentration of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) was calculated. While in men the occurrence of a significant, positive correlation was stated between the concentration of the HDL cholesterol fraction and the mineral density and T-score index in the ultra-distal point, the analysis of the compounds of mineral density (BMD), bone mass (BMC) of the forearm, T-score index with somatic features in women showed a significant, positive relation between the body weight and the bone mass mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. Also, a significant weak, positive correlation was observed between the BMI, the mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. In men, the occurrence of significant, positive correlations was stated between the body weight and BMC, BMD, T-score indicator in the proximal point of the forearm bone and ultra-distal point. Similar relations were observed between the BMI, mineral density, T-score and bone mass in the proximal point and in the ultra-distal point. Based on several noted weak, positive correlations between the lipid profile and BMD, the results of this study of women and men cannot unequivocally indicate the dependence of the bone tissue state on the lipid level in the blood serum of young women and men. Therefore, the issues raised require further investigation.

Intergenerational relations and child development in England
Antti O. Tanskanen

Evolutionary studies have shown that in many traditional populations the beneficial effects of grandparental presence for grandchildren may vary according to the sex and lineage of the grandparents, as well as by the sex of the grandchild. However, few studies have investigated the relevance of these factors in modern developed societies. The present investigation uses the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 4,636 children) to analyse the association between grandparental investment and child development in contemporary England. Grandparental investment is measured by parent-grandparent contact frequencies at the child’s age of 3 and child development by “early learning goals” over the first year of primary school assessed with the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP). Children whose mothers reported contacts with maternal grandparents receive higher FSP scores compared to those with no contact at all. In addition, children whose fathers reported daily contacts with paternal grandfathers have lower FSP scores than other children. The study provides evidence of the relevance of grandparental investment on grandchild development also in developed societies. The results are discussed with reference to the grandmother hypothesis, sex-specific reproductive strategies and sex chromosome hypothesis.